为最佳性能调优 Nginx

通常来说,一个优化良好的 Nginx Linux 服务器可以达到 500,000 – 600,000 次/秒 的请求处理性能,然而我的 Nginx 服务器可以稳定地达到 904,000 次/秒 的处理性能,并且我以此高负载测试超过 12 小时,服务器工作稳定。

这里需要特别说明的是,本文中所有列出来的配置都是在我的测试环境验证的,而你需要根据你服务器的情况进行配置:

从 EPEL 源安装 Nginx:

yum -y install nginx

备份配置文件,然后根据你的需要进行配置:

cp /etc/nginx/nginx.conf /etc/nginx/nginx.conf.orig
vim /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
# This number should be, at maximum, the number of CPU cores on your system.
# (since nginx doesn't benefit from more than one worker per CPU.)
# 这里的数值不能超过 CPU 的总核数,因为在单个核上部署超过 1 个 Nginx 服务进程并不起到提高性能的作用。
worker_processes 24;
 
# Number of file descriptors used for Nginx. This is set in the OS with 'ulimit -n 200000'
# or using /etc/security/limits.conf
# Nginx 最大可用文件描述符数量,同时需要配置操作系统的 "ulimit -n 200000",或者在 /etc/security/limits.conf 中配置。 
worker_rlimit_nofile 200000;
 
# only log critical errors
# 只记录 critical 级别的错误日志
error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log crit
 
# Determines how many clients will be served by each worker process.
# (Max clients = worker_connections * worker_processes)
# "Max clients" is also limited by the number of socket connections available on the system (~64k)
# 配置单个 Nginx 单个进程可服务的客户端数量,(最大值客户端数 = 单进程连接数 * 进程数 )
# 最大客户端数同时也受操作系统 socket 连接数的影响(最大 64K )
worker_connections 4000;
 
# essential for linux, optmized to serve many clients with each thread
# Linux 关键配置,允许单个线程处理多个客户端请求。
use epoll;
 
# Accept as many connections as possible, after nginx gets notification about a new connection.
# May flood worker_connections, if that option is set too low.
# 允许尽可能地处理更多的连接数,如果 worker_connections 配置太低,会产生大量的无效连接请求。
multi_accept on;
 
# Caches information about open FDs, freqently accessed files.
# Changing this setting, in my environment, brought performance up from 560k req/sec, to 904k req/sec.
# I recommend using some varient of these options, though not the specific values listed below.
# 缓存高频操作文件的FDs(文件描述符/文件句柄)
# 在我的设备环境中,通过修改以下配置,性能从 560k 请求/秒 提升到 904k 请求/秒。
# 我建议你对以下配置尝试不同的组合,而不是直接使用这几个数据。
open_file_cache max=200000 inactive=20s;
open_file_cache_valid 30s;
open_file_cache_min_uses 2;
open_file_cache_errors on;
 
# Buffer log writes to speed up IO, or disable them altogether
# 将日志写入高速 IO 存储设备,或者直接关闭日志。
# access_log /var/log/nginx/access.log main buffer=16k;
access_log off;
 
# Sendfile copies data between one FD and other from within the kernel.
# More efficient than read() + write(), since the requires transferring data to and from the user space.
# 开启 sendfile 选项,使用内核的 FD 文件传输功能,这个比在用户态用 read() + write() 的方式更加高效。
sendfile on;
 
# Tcp_nopush causes nginx to attempt to send its HTTP response head in one packet,
# instead of using partial frames. This is useful for prepending headers before calling sendfile,
# or for throughput optimization.
# 打开 tcp_nopush 选项,Nginux 允许将 HTTP 应答首部与数据内容在同一个报文中发出。
# 这个选项使服务器在 sendfile 时可以提前准备 HTTP 首部,能够达到优化吞吐的效果。
tcp_nopush on;
 
# don't buffer data-sends (disable Nagle algorithm). Good for sending frequent small bursts of data in real time.
# 不要缓存 data-sends (关闭 Nagle 算法),这个能够提高高频发送小数据报文的实时性。
tcp_nodelay on;
 
# Timeout for keep-alive connections. Server will close connections after this time.
# 配置连接 keep-alive 超时时间,服务器将在超时之后关闭相应的连接。
keepalive_timeout 30;
 
# Number of requests a client can make over the keep-alive connection. This is set high for testing.
# 单个客户端在 keep-alive 连接上可以发送的请求数量,在测试环境中,需要配置个比较大的值。
keepalive_requests 100000;
 
# allow the server to close the connection after a client stops responding. Frees up socket-associated memory.
# 允许服务器在客户端停止发送应答之后关闭连接,以便释放连接相应的 socket 内存开销。
reset_timedout_connection on;
 
# send the client a "request timed out" if the body is not loaded by this time. Default 60.
# 配置客户端数据请求超时时间,默认是 60 秒。
client_body_timeout 10;
 
# If the client stops reading data, free up the stale client connection after this much time. Default 60.
# 客户端数据读超时配置,客户端停止读取数据,超时时间后断开相应连接,默认是 60 秒。
send_timeout 2;
 
# Compression. Reduces the amount of data that needs to be transferred over the network
# 压缩参数配置,减少在网络上所传输的数据量。
gzip on;
gzip_min_length 10240;
gzip_proxied expired no-cache no-store private auth;
gzip_types text/plain text/css text/xml text/javascript application/x-javascript application/xml;
gzip_disable "MSIE [1-6].";

启动 Nginx 并配置开机自动启动。

service nginx start
chkconfig nginx on

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